1. International Society of Sports Nutrition Conference 2019, Improved Muscle Protein Synthesis is Achieved with 3.6g of Free Form Essential Amino Acid Ingestion in Elderly David D. Church1, Arny A. Ferrando1, and Robert R. Wolfe1, 1Department of Geriatrics, Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging, Center for Translational Research in Aging & Longevity, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.
2. Ferrando AA, Bamman MM, Schutzler SE, Spencer HJ, Evans RP, Wolfe RR, Increased nitrogen intake following hip arthroplasty expedites muscle strength recovery. Journal of Aging: Research and Clinical Practice 2013; 2(4): 369, 2013.
3. **The comparison is between different studies, but the studies were conduced in the same facility and the same protocols were used. The following papers are the refs for the graph. The 3.6 gm dosage is Improved Muscle Protein Synthesis is Achieved with 3.6g of Free Form Essential Amino Acid Ingestion in Elderly David D. Church1, Arny A. Ferrando1, and Robert R. Wolfe1. Paddon-Jones D, Sheffield-Moore M, Zhang X-J, Katsanos CS, Wolfe RR. Differential stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in elderly humans following isocaloric ingestion of amino acids or whey protein. Exp Gerontol 41:215-219, 2006. Katsansos CS, Kobayashi H, Sheffield-Moore M, Aarsland A, Wolfe RR. A high proportion of leucine is required for optimal stimulation of the rate of muscle protein synthesis by essential amino acids in the elderly. Am J Physiol Endocriol Metab 291:E381-E387, Aug 2006. FERRANDO, A. A., B. D. WILLIAMS, C. A. STUART, H. W. LANE, AND R. R. WOLFE. Oral branched chain amino acids decrease whole-body proteolysis. J.P.E.N. 19:47-54, 1995.